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Understanding Tool Path Motions in a CNC Machine

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  • Understanding Tool Path Motions in a CNC Machine

    A Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machine may have much more than a single motion type which it uses, but there are actually 3 most common motion types that are actually not hard to remember. These're the Rapid Motion, the Straight Line Motion, and the Circular Motion.

    All of these motion types might seem different but they share 2 things in common, which would be they're all modal and the endpoint of each motion is actually specified in motion command. By being modal it means that the motion type will be in effect until changed otherwise.

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    Three common motion types:

    1.)Rapid Motion Type

    Rapid motion type is called Positioning. The way in which this motion type is actually used is actually through utilizing probably the fastest rate possible of the command motion of the machine. Example uses of rapid motion are actually moving to clear obstructions, placing cutting tools to and from the desired position, and any system which provides non cutting in the schemes of theirs.

    The command which is usually programmed to a CNC machine is actually G00 because in this command, the end point for the fast motion will be specified.

    The CNC machine, with most controls given, will have the ability to move as fast as possible in all commanded axes. In the case of super fast motion, one axis may be in a position to achieve its end point before other axes. line movement that is Straight won't occur with type of rapid command function as well as the coder of the machine must take into account that you will find no obstructions to stay away from. line motion that is Straight is going to happen even during rapid motion commands when done with other controls.

    2.)Straight Line Motion

    This particular kind of motion will allow the coder of the machine to command perfectly straight line movements within the machine. Unlike the fast motion type, the straight line motion will allow the coder to vary the speed of the motion or perhaps feed rate to be used during the movement. Examples of using line motion that is straight will be turning a straight diameter, taper, when milling straight surfaces, and when drilling for this's because these examples require straight cutting movement.

    The common word to specify a straight line motion into a device will be G01, for within this command the coder is going to include the preferred end point within each of the axes.

    3.)Circular Motion

    This motion type would result in the machine to go in the direction of a circular path and is actually used to create the radii in machining. When talking about points on circular motion feed rate, it's equal to that of straight line motion.

    Different than which of straight line motion and fast motion, there are actually 2 G codes that are normally used when programming a circular motion into a machine. These're G03 and G02. G02 is actually used when the coder desires a clockwise motion into the machine while G03 is actually used to make an anti clockwise motion. To know which of the commands to use, the coder must view the movement with the same perspective as to what the motion of the device will be, may it be anti-clockwise or clockwise.

    Another requirement which would be programmed into a machine which would be using circular motion would be that the coder must specify the radius of the arc that's to be generated. With brand new technological advances in CNC, an R word is now used to specify the radius.

    For older controls in CNC machinery, J, an I, and K are actually used to specify location of the middle point of the arc.
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